|New tools for improving sustainable control of malaria vectors in Southeast Asia will be developed. An adapted monitoring system to detect early development of insecticide resistance will be set up . We will develop molecular and biochemical tests to explore the resistance mechanisms involved. At the end of the project the insecticide resistance status will be available for at least 120 sites and decision tree for the management of operational implications will be available. Geographical Information System IGIS) on vector distribution: (both primary and secondary vectors ) and insecticide resistance will be developed. We will developed model to predict vector distribution and associations of species by environmental factors. This will be a practical tool to delineate malaria risk. areas, to improve the targeting of vector control and assessing the resistance status of vectors.