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Oblikovanje polimerov (Slovene)
Oblikovanje polimerov
Start: 1/1/1999
End: 12/31/2003
Homepage: http://sicris.izum.si/search/prg.aspx?lang=slv&id=2745

Project Status History
unknown 1/1/1999
 
Keywords
T390 - Polymer technology, biopolymers
Sinteza, karakterizacija, soodvisnost strukture in lastnosti polimerov, funkcionalni polimeri, polimerni tekoči kristali, prepletene polimerne mreže, konjugirani polimeri, recikliranje polimernih materialov.

Abstract
The increased use of polymeric materials is based on the development of materials with constantly improving properties, although they are still far from the optimal, theoretically predicted properties. Materials with improved properties can be obtained through new or improved synthetic routes and technologies. Knowing the structure–to-property relation is a necessary condition in optimizing macromolecular systems and makes possible design of polymers with predicted structures and properties. The aim of the programme is to investigate the synthesis of specialty polymers, to study their structure–to-properties relations and to synthesize polymers with defined properties for selected applications. Within the framework of the programme our research will focus on the synthesis and characterization of various polymers with special properties, which are achieved by the incorporation of functional groups into the main or side chain of the polymer backbone. The specific properties of polymers will be controlled by the selection of the polymer backbone, functional groups and the method of functionalization. The functional groups may also present the reactive sites for further synthesis by covalent or noncovalent bonding; special attention will be given to supramolecular polyurethanes prepared by molecular recognition. Some of the current research topics of interest in this regard are liquid crystalline polymers, conducting polymers, polymers with nonlinear optic properties, magnetic properties, polymer carriers for catalysts and reagents, biocompatible polymers, polymer blends, composites etc. The investigations in the frame of the programme will be conducted on polyurethanes (side-chain liquid crystalline polyurethanes, polyurethane ionomers, interpenetrating polymer networks based on functional polyurethanes and polymethacrylates) and conductive conjugated polymers (substituted polyanilines) as well as on the polymer systems that are of interest to the Slovenian industry (phenolic resins, epoxy resins etc.)A part of the proposed program work will be focused on the reuse of waste polymers. Areas of interest will be stabilization, modification and blending of comodity polymers such as polyolefins and feedstock recycling of polycondensates through innovative techniques. The efforts will have a strong economic emphasis and will be designed to ensure the final use of recycled polymers in long-term sustainable solutions.
Čedalja večja poraba polimernih materialov temelji predvsem na njihovih čedalje boljših lastnostih, ki pa so še vedno precej slabše od optimalnih, teoretično predvidenih lastnosti. Poti do izboljšanih lastnosti so povezane z načinom sinteze in predelave, ki določajo strukturo in uporabne lastnosti; z drugimi besedami, govorimo o načrtovanju oz. oblikovanju makromolekul ("macromolecular design"). Namen in cilj predlaganega programa je sinteza polimerov s posebnimi lastnostmi z definirano oz. vnaprej predvideno strukturo in ugotavljanje korelacij med strukturo polimera in njegovimi lastnostmi. V okviru programa "Oblikovanje polimerov" bomo raziskovali sintezo in karakterizacijo polimerov z vnaprej predvideno strukturo in lastnostmi, sintetizirali pa jih bomo po mehanizmu stopenjske ali verižne polimerizacije. Sinteza običajno poteka preko funkcionalnih polimerov, ki so lahko končni cilj sinteze ali pa so prva faza za sintezo polimerov s posebnimi lastnostmi. Pri tem funkcionalne skupine na polimerni verigi lahko reagirajo s specifičnimi reaktanti, se povezujejo med seboj z molekularnimi interakcijami ali pa pride do specifičnega molekularnega razpoznavanja med posameznimi funkcionalnimi skupinami, kar vse omogoča pripravo polimerov z izboljšanimi lastnostmi. To so npr. polimerne mešanice, prepletene polimerne mreže, amfofilni in dvofazni sistemi (ionomeri, blokkopolimeri), polimeri s posebnimi optičnimi, magnetnimi ali električnimi lastnostmi (polimeri s tekočekristalnimi lastnostmi, prevodni polimeri). Raziskave v okviru programa bodo potekale na področju funkcionalnih polimerov poliuretanskega (PU) in akrilatnega tipa (tekočekristalinični PU, PU ionomeri, prepletene polimerne mreže na osnovi akrilatov in PU), polprevodnih in prevodnih konjugiranih polimerov (polianilini, poliacetileni), naše znanje pa bomo uporabili tudi na sistemih, ki so oz. bodo zanimivi za industrijo polimerne branže v Sloveniji (epoksidi, poliestri, fenolne smole itd.). V okviru programa bo potekalo tudi aktivno delo na področju recikliranja polimernih materialov. Pri delu bo sodelovalo večje število slovenskih podjetij kot tudi drugih vladnih in nevladnih organizacij. Raziskovalno delo bo usmerjeno v kemijsko reciklažo kondenzacijskih polimerov (PET, poliamid). Poudarek bo na uporabi inovativnih metod mikrovalovne tehnike. Za določitev vpliva spremenljivk pri sintezi na strukturo polimera in povezave med strukturo in funkcionalnimi lastnostmi polimera je pomembna izbira ustreznih metod karakterizacije. Za spremljanje poteka polimerizacije, določitev strukture polimerov, njihove molske mase ter termičnih lastnosti in sprememb bomo uporabili moderne instrumentalne tehnike visoke zmogljivosti, kot so: spektroskopija (NMR, FTIR), rentgenska difrakcija, izključitvena kromatografija (SEC, SEC-MALS), sipanje svetlobe (LS), diferenčna dinamična kalorimetrija in polarizacijska mikroskopija. Sintetiziranim polimerom bomo določili tudi uporabne lastnosti kot so električna in fotoprevodnost, elektroluminiscenca, mehanske lastnosti ipd.

 
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